Cargo handling and handling of ships and vehicles at the port, cargo stacking and stacking and transshipment of the depot, and lifting and transportation machinery for the handling of goods in the cabins, inside and outside of the compartments.
Port handling machinery generally has higher working speed and productivity, and can adapt to the requirement of frequent continuous operation.
Port loading and unloading machinery can be divided into three basic types: hoisting machinery, conveying machinery and loading and unloading machines.
At present, there are more than 100 loading and unloading machines in port application, of which there are 30 or so.
Lifting machinery can lift the cargo vertically and have the mechanical ability of horizontal migration.
It is characterized by intermittent repetitive work, with empty time in each work cycle.
Lifting machinery is mainly a variety of lifting equipment, port used a door crane, portal crane grab ship unloader, bridge-type grab ship unloader, gantry crane and floating crane (see floating crane), etc.
Container terminal mainly USES the shore container crane.
A kind of crane with a crane, which is named for the gate base (door seat), also called door hanger, door machine.
It has the ability to rise, rotate, change, and walk four coordinating bodies (figure 1).
The door crane robed along the ground.
Under the door can be used for railway vehicles and cars.
The crane boom is long and the height is high, and the working speed of each mechanism is high, so the work scope is large, the productivity is high, and the different taking devices can be equipped.
Hook can loading and unloading of goods and fittings, for example, steel and other heavy parts, fittings can grab the loading and unloading of bulk cargo, switch to a dedicated spreader can loading and unloading of containers (but the efficiency of container equipment), and versatility.
China produces 5 tons, 10 tons, 16 tons, 60 tons of different heavy lifting cranes.
The door holder is a special machine which is derived from the door crane. It is also known as the gate machine, which is used for the unloading of the ship.
The structure form is similar to the crane, but it is equipped with the hopper and belt conveyor system for bulk cargo in the door, and the lifting gear is the grab bucket.
After grabbing the bulk cargo from the cabin, the grab will be lifted and changed, and will be transported to the yard by the belt conveyor system.
The funnel on the door can be moved to minimize the variation, thus productivity is higher than general motors, and the structure of the arm frame is higher.
The productivity of China's door - seat grab and unloading machine is about 800 tons per hour, which is suitable for bulk unloading operations of small and medium-sized ports.
The bridge type grab unloading machine has the higher productivity of bulk cargo unloading machinery (figure 2).
It stuff grab ship unloader of the difference between its grab by the grab a car move horizontally in crane bridge rail coming up, without a boom of pitch, and thus has high speed and productivity.
At present, the productivity of such unloader can be as high as 2,500 tons per hour.
The container crane on the shore is a special crane for container loading and unloading.
The shape is similar to the bridge type grab unloading machine.
There are many types of container cranes on the shore.
China currently adopts the front and rear frames and pull bars to form the portal frame. The door frame is driven along the front of the wharf and the bridge is supported on the door frame (figure 3).
In order to avoid the collision of the ship from the dock, the overhanging cantilever of the bridge can be tilted or retractable.
The walking car is traveling back and forth along the bridge rail to carry the container.
At present commonly used hoisting speed, when the light is 70 ~ 120 meters per minute, overloading for 35 ~ 50 metres per minute, when the small car walking speed of about 120 ~ 150 meters per minute, and is equipped with the special container spreader and stabilizer, lifting weight generally under 40 tons, lifting container 20 ~ 30 units per hour.
Gantry crane horizontal main beam supports the bridge crane on two rigid legs.
The lifting trolley walks on the track of the main beam.
The gantry crane has two types: orbital and tyrotype. The orbital type moves along the ground, and the wheel is flexible.
Mainly used for loading and unloading, stacking container.
The weight of the wheel - type gantry crane in China is 40 tons, and 6 rows of containers can be placed in the span span, which can be stacked up to 4 containers.
A derrick mounted on a gondola or a special boat with a crane, also known as a floating crane or a floating crane (see color map).
Because of its great weight and mobility, it is not affected by the change of water level, so it is widely used in loading and unloading operations in port and river.
In a river with a large water level, floating cranes often work with a cable car.
The cable car is a wedge-shaped car with a cargo platform, which is driven by a winch, and operates on the track of the ramp wharf. It is used for loading and unloading of goods and heavy parts.
The weight of a cable car is usually 10 tons, and the maximum is 150 tons.
The machinery that transports mechanical energy continuously to deliver goods, also known as continuous transport machinery.
Can be in any plane, namely water plane, inclined plane, until the vertical plane carries goods.
The conveyor can be divided into two categories with traction components and untractable components.
The former USES the belt, chain and rope to carry the load bearing member to carry the goods, mainly belt conveyor, and chain conveyor;
The latter USES gravity, inertia, friction, air flow and other transportation cargo, mainly pneumatic conveyor.
The conveyor belt conveyor with a continuous movement of the conveyor belt conveying the machinery.
The conveyor belt circumvents the drive, redirection, tensioning and other roller, and supports on many of the roller.
At work, drive the driving drum, through the friction between the driving drum and the conveyor belt, to move the conveyor belt to the unloading point.
The most widely used belt conveyor is belt conveyor belt conveyor belt.
Different size of tape and the number of pad layers form different specifications.
China has produced a series of standardized products.
Some countries produce up to 3,000 millimeters of tape.
In order to improve the tensile strength of the conveyor belt, the distance can be more than 10km in order to improve the tensile strength of the conveyor belt.
The port belt type conveyors are used for the loading, transshipment and stacking of bulk bulk goods, such as coal loading machine and ore loading machine.
Some countries have reached 20,000 tons per hour, with speeds of up to six meters per second.
It can also obtain higher productivity by using conveyor for bulk unloading.
In some coal terminals along the Mississippi River, a bucket ship can be used to unload coal from coal, which can generate up to 3,600 tons of coal per hour.
Chain bucket unloader can also be used for bulk discharging.
It is made up of walking doors, bucket elevator and belt conveyor.
The belt conveyor is a belt conveyor with two layers of belt clamping goods. It is also called pressure belt conveyor, and used for unloading of bulk cargo.
The China river port provides bulk cargo or cargo to the ramp wharf, using a belt conveyor that is called a "belt car".
It is the whole conveyor frame segmentation in about 3 meters long narrow gauge car, small workshop with articulated, orbit from the wharf slope after a segmental arc laid to the dock, wharf surface decorate a hoist, wire rope pull the whole conveyor, changing with water level to adjust the parking position.
The current bandwidth of the belt vehicle is 650 mm and 800 mm, up to 100 ~ 200 meters long, and the productivity of transporting loose coal is 400 ~ 500 tons per hour.
Material piling and taking machine In bulk, such as coal yard, will be shipped bulk conveying machinery piled up together, or to the transport machinery for material, with stacker and reclaimer material piling and taking machine or pile of oneness.
Which kind of machinery is used depends mainly on the requirements of the goods and the loading and unloading process.
The commonly used stacking machine is a bucket wheel collecting machine.
It consists of bucket wheel and belt conveyor, rack and walking mechanism.
When taking the material, the bucket wheel turns and picks up the bulk cargo from the pile, and the output is poured on the conveyor belt.
When the material is piled, the bulk goods delivered by the conveyor will be collected by the belt conveyor.
At present, the maximum productivity of China's production of bucket wheel collection machines is 2000 tons per hour, with a charge of 1200 tons.
The pneumatic conveyor USES the fan to transport the bulk cargo in the closed pipeline, and also called the pneumatic conveyor.
The fan is inhaling from the pipe system, the cargo is drawn from the suction nozzle at the suction nozzle, and the high speed airflow makes the bulk cargo float in the material tube.
Then the disperser is separated from the air flow by the separator and unloaded by the discharging device. The conveyor process is completed.
This kind of conveyor is used for bulk grain unloading in the port, so it is also called a feeder.
Its advantages are simple equipment and good cleaning effect;
The disadvantage is that the energy consumption is large, which can not carry large and cohesive goods with large size.
The output of bulk grain unloading of pneumatic conveyor has reached 1000 tons per hour.
Handling machinery in the port for loading and unloading, stacking and the short of goods transport machinery, fork lift, straddle carriers, dumper, spiral unloading machine, tractor and trailer, etc.
The forklift truck is equipped with lift door frame and cargo fork handling and handling machinery in front of the tire type chassis, or forklift or forklift.
It is widely used in dock, storage yard, cabin and interior.
Insert the fork into the pallet, then lift the fork lift the cargo, and do the stacking.
The forklift is compact and maneuverable and can walk on narrow passageways inside or inside the cabin.
If equipped with different objects, such as string, swivel, bucket, clamping, etc., can load a variety of goods.
The large fork lift truck is equipped with special container crane, which is to be a special forklift truck.
The forklift truck can be divided into the internal combustion fork truck and the battery fork truck according to the power plant;
According to the structure, there are many kinds of balance, forward, leg, side and cross.
The transshipment is made from a portal frame, a lifting frame with a fork, and a moving mechanism consisting of a wheeled walking mechanism (figure 4), also known as a straddle.
Generally driven by an internal combustion engine.
The straddle truck is suitable for the handling and stacking of the steel, wood, and grow box.
At work, the door frame is carried over the cargo, carrying and stacking the goods after holding the goods.
With the development of container transport, the ports of some countries use straddle carriers to carry containers between the quay front and the warehouse yard and do the stacking in the warehouse.
This kind of container special straddle truck is equipped with container lifting gear. When the portal frame is interlocked on the container, the hoisting gear will land on the container, lock the container with hydraulic lock, then carry out the hoisting.
Lifting height should meet the requirements of container height 2 ~ 3.
The dumper tilting the railway wagon, unloading the special unloading machine.
It has high productivity and is suitable for large professional bulk terminals.
The dumper is divided into two kinds: rotors and tilting.
Rotor tipper application more, unloading, delivery of bulk gondola car into car dumper rotor platforms, with the pressure needed to institutions, and then with the rotor rotate 160 ° ~ 180 °, bulk is discharged into the funnel under the rotor, reoccupy feeder and out of the belt conveyor.
The modern dumper can accommodate two open cars at a time, and the two can be connected with a rotary hook to realize the car's undisintegrated unloading operation, which greatly improves the efficiency of unloading.
It turns out that it takes about 3 minutes for each car to unload a rotor, and less than 1 minute for each of the modern dumper.
In the 1970s, China made the unloading of the special machinery for the unloading of coal.
It is composed of spiral mechanism, swing mechanism, lifting mechanism and walking mechanism.
When unloading the car, open the side door of the open car. The spiral mechanism will rotate the bulk cargo from the top of the car, remove the loose coal, and then be transported by the belt conveyor at the bottom of the car.
A one-way auger unload the car from one side, and a two-way auger unload the car from both sides.
The track of the screw unloading machine is on both sides of the railway unloading line.
It moves along the track, unloading cars at a rate of 300 to 400 tons per hour.
In recent years, oil port terminals have adopted the oil boom (see color map) to solve the problem of connecting pipelines and tankers.
This is a special machine for loading bulk liquid cargo.
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