The unsafe condition of the crane is the risk caused by non-standard design, such as failure of overload protection, insufficient balance of axle strength, no prevention of unhooking device, improper selection of spreader rigging, etc.; followed by manufacturing defects and installation defects, such as improper material selection. The quality of processing is not good, so that equipment with hidden dangers will be put into use. A large number of problems exist in the use of parts, such as the failure to replace worn-out parts in time, lack of necessary safety protection, poor maintenance and operation, resulting in loss of exercise control, destruction of parts or structures, and irregular safety performance inspections. In short, defects in any aspect of design, manufacture, installation, use, inspection, etc., may cause severe consequences of falling hook hangers. The nature of the crane (design, manufacture, installation) is the basic condition for ensuring the safety of lifting operations.
The behavior of human insecurity actor is affected by many factors such as physical, psychological, and comprehensive qualities. It is manifested as unskilled operating skills, lack of necessary safety education and training; non-driver operation, no card employment; violation of rules and discipline, Bad operating habits; Judgment of operational errors, command signals are not clear, lifting drivers and crane workers with the incoordination and human biological rhythm in the "three high areas" and so on. In short, poor safety awareness and low operating skills are the main human causes of accidents.
Environmental factors that exceed the safety limits or adverse environmental standards, such as high dust, high temperature, high humidity, low temperature, high noise, windy days, poor lighting and other environments, will be distracted and directly affect the operators. The ability to react and the stability of the technology will increase the number of misoperations and illegal operations and lead to accidents. In addition, the poor operating environment will also cause the crane system itself to reduce or even speed up the failure of the parts (components), becoming an unsafe factor.
Safety management defect management includes leadership safety awareness level; implementation of crane management, inspection and regular safety performance inspections; safety education and training for related personnel; special training for lifting workers, rules and regulations for crane safety operations, and penalties for violations The establishment of the system and accident emergency plan, the lack of effective monitoring and management of the periodic inspection of lifting equipment and crane aids. Any neglect or failure in safety management is an important cause of accidental injury.
5. People's reasons There are also physical factors to strive for equipment selection, safety protection measures, plant buildings, lifting process, operating environment, regular inspections, etc., in accordance with the safety regulations and standards for lifting machinery design, equipment selection Purchase, installation and construction, starting from the two aspects of people and things, the use of units should work out the crane operation, maintenance and management and other safety rules and regulations and operating procedures. At the same time, it should be clearly understood that, in accordance with the relevant provisions on the safety management of special equipment, the periodic inspection and inspection of the safety performance of the in-use cranes (including cranes and auxiliary equipment) is to ensure the safe operation of the lifting equipment and reduce or even eliminate The necessary guarantee conditions for the occurrence of accidental injury from falling crane hooks of metallurgical cranes .
The hook group is a common spreader in hoisting machinery. The hook is often suspended on the rope of the hoisting mechanism by means of pulleys and other components
The hooks are divided into single hooks and double hooks according to their shapes; they are divided into forging hooks and laminated hooks according to the manufacturing method. The single hooks are simple to manufacture and easy to use, but the stress conditions are not good. They are mostly used in working places with a lifting capacity of 80 tons or less; they often use symmetrical double hooks when they are heavy. Laminated hooks are formed by riveting several pieces of cut and formed steel plates. The individual hooks will not be damaged when there are cracks in the individual plates. The safety is better, but the weight is larger. Most of them are used in large lifting weights or hoisting steel drums. On the crane. Hooks are often subjected to impact during operation and must be made of high-quality toughened carbon steel. The hooks are widely classified and generally include: shackles, rings, rings, pear-shaped rings, long rings, combination rings, S-hooks, nose hooks, American hook crocodile hooks, eye-shaped slide hooks, and insurance card rings Screws and chain shackles are unique, novel, high quality, and safe. They are suitable for factories, mines, petroleum, chemicals, and shipping terminals. They ensure safety, quality and safety factors, and static loads up to 3 times. Lifting weight from 5 tons to 500 tons.